It is not surprising to me that amateur cryptanalysts today often use an approach like frequency analysis to solve substitution ciphers without any prior training, while Singh states that a certain level of 'scholarship' was required for such a skill. The term scholarship is relative. This level of scholarship that Singh speaks of is much more prevalent today. Although a person may not be masterful in linguistics or statistics, he or she has most likely learned the basics through his or her childhood. The logic and problem solving techniques that set the foundation for deciphering are installed into the minds of children today at a very young age, whether it is through scholastic activities or thought provoking games. Additionally, one should keep in mind the differing levels of intellect altogether. To compare our society to one 500+ years ago is simply unfair. The level of knowledge today throughout all of society is at a significantly higher level than that of an ancient civilization. Another important factor is the overwhelming presence of technology today. Commonly used tools today, like cell phones and computers, require fundamental skills to properly navigate through them. The fact that children are able to correctly use sophisticated technology, sometimes to a greater degree than their parents, demonstrates the rising standard of knowledge for children.