by Maxim Mukhin

Whirlpool Galaxy (M51)The hash function is a one way cryptographic tool used to convert words into numbers. Using this function, a website can compare passwords and other sensitive information without actually storing any information except for the numbers, which are meaningless to any unauthorized user. I give a brief introduction as to how in the 1960’s the idea of hashing was created. I then move on to describe potential ways in which hash functions are broken, and the weaknesses of certain examples. Moving into the 1980’s I introduce the two main types of hash functions used in the public sector, MD and SHA. I give an overview of their general idea and discuss some implications of the SHA, which was created by the NSA.

Citations:

Preneel, B. (2008). The First 30 Years of Cryptographic Hash Functions and
Stevens, H. (2018). Hans Peter Luhn and the Birth of the Hashing Algorithm. IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved from: https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-history/silicon-revolution/hans-peter-luhn-and-the-birth-of-the-hashing-algorithm

Silva, J. (2003). An Overview of Cryptographic Hash Functions and Their Uses. SANS Information Security Reading Room. Retrieved from: https://www.sans.org/reading-room/ whitepapers/vpns/overview-cryptographic-hash-functions-879

Dodis, Y. Ristenpart, T. Shrimpton, T. (2009). Salvaging Merkle-Damgard for Practical Applications. Advances in Cryptology – EUROCRYPT ‘09, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Retrieved from: https://eprint.iacr.org/2009/177.pdf

Cimpanu, C. (2019). A quarter of major CMSs use outdated MD5 as the default password hashing scheme. ZDNet. Retrieved from: https://www.zdnet.com/article/a-quarter-of-major-cmss-use-outdated-md5-as-the-default-password-hashing-scheme/

Music from https://filmmusic.io:

"Amazing Plan" by Kevin MacLeod (https://incompetech.com)
License: CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

"Beauty Flow" by Kevin MacLeod (https://incompetech.com)
License: CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

"The Builder" by Kevin MacLeod (https://incompetech.com)
License: CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

"Tyrant" by Kevin MacLeod (https://incompetech.com)
License: CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

"Marty Gots a Plan" by Kevin MacLeod (https://incompetech.com)
License: CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

"Willow and the Light" by Kevin MacLeod (https://incompetech.com)
License: CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

Image: Whirlpool galaxy (M51), By NASA and European Space Agency,  Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3863746