When I began reading Singh Ch.7, I failed to realize, or remember, that the book was written 20 years ago. So, I was very surprised by some of the statements he made in the opening paragraph, such as the assertion that email would “soon” replace physical mail. In addition to email, text messages, instant messaging, and social media have also made electronic communication more common. At another point in the chapter, he mentioned that online shopping is still in its infancy – now, it’s driving brick-and-mortar stores to extinction. Yet another development is the popularization of computerized systems for businesses, banks, healthcare facilities, and other services. Sure, we would all like privacy in our interpersonal communications, but its particularly important for our interactions with these institutions, in order to protect ourselves from fraud, identity theft, and  discrimination. One could argue, especially in Singh’s time, that this could be achieved by only allowing such institutions to have access to encryption. But now as these systems and functions become increasingly complex, widespread, and consumer-initiated, its necessary for the general public to have control over their data and its security. Nearly our entire lives are stored in some way or another on our devices, therefore it is paramount that we are able to protect these devices from those who wish to exploit us or do us harm.m