Because the onset of the telegraph inserted a middleman in the communication of a sender and receiver, messages not meant for prying eyes understandably needed to be encrypted with a more secure cipher like the Vigenère cipher. Since the invention of the telegraph in the 19thcentury, several other inventions or innovations in the world of communication have simultaneously increased the global spread of information, while also creating significant implications for security and privacy. For example, with the first primitive forms of the telephone, an operator was needed to connect the caller to their recipient. This operator could hypothetically listen to any call they wanted to, which created a feeling of insecurity in this form of communication that was quite similar to that of the telegram—that of distrust in a middleman (or woman, as switchboard operators at this time were often female). Similarly, with the invention of radio in the 20thcentury, any message sent over radio waves could be picked up freely, so messages necessarily needed to be encrypted if they contained sensitive material, especially in times of war, as information gathering agencies would often employ this tactic to collect knowledge on the plans or whereabouts of their enemies. Needless to say, every technological advancement brings with it uncertainty, and the risk of cession of privacy or security should be considered before any advancement in communication becomes widespread.